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RESEARCH ARTICLES
Hostility, anger, and cardiovascular mortality among blacks and whites
Shervin Assari
January-March 2017, 6(1):2-2
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.34029  
Background: Despite the well-known impact of baseline hostility and anger on subsequent cardiovascular mortality, few studies have tested whether predictive role of hostility and anger on mortality varies as a function of race and gender. Objectives: Current study explored role of race and gender in modifying the effects of baseline hostility and anger on cardiovascular mortality in a nationally representative sample in U.S. Materials and Methods: We used data from the Americans’ changing lives study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of U.S. adults. The study followed 1,593 Blacks or Whites for 10 years from 2001 to 2011. Independent variables were baseline hostility and anger (anger-in, and anger-out), measured at 2001, using 4 item Cook-Medley cynical hostility scale and Spielberger Anger Expres- sion scales, respectively. Dependent variable was time to death due to cardiovascular disease since 2001. Covariates were baseline socio-demographics (age and education), behaviors (smoking and drinking), and health (number of chronic medical conditions, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms) measured at 2001. We used Cox proportional hazard models in the pooled sample and specific to race, in the absence and presence of health variables. Results: In the pooled sample, baseline hostility and anger-out predicted cardiovascular mortality in the next 10 years. We found significant interactions between race and baseline hostility and anger-in on cardiovascular mortality, suggesting that these associ- ations are stronger for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with baseline anger-out on cardiovascular mortality. Gender also did not have any interactions with baseline hostility, anger-in, or anger-out on cardiovascular mortality. Conclusions: Hostility and anger-in better predict cardiovascular mortality among Blacks than Whites in the United States. Black - White difference in the associations of hostility and anger with cardiovascular mortality suggest these factors may have some role in shaping health disparities across racial groups.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub] [CITATIONS]
  26 2,220 250
Diagnosing coronary artery disease via data mining algorithms by considering laboratory and echocardiography features
Roohallah Alizadehsani, Jafar Habibi, Zahra Alizadeh Sani, Hoda Mashayekhi, Reihane Boghrati, Asma Ghandeharioun, Fahime Khozeimeh, Fariba Alizadeh-Sani
July-September 2013, 2(3):133-139
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.10888  
Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the result of the accumulation of athermanous plaques within the walls of coronary arteries, which supply the myocardium with oxygen and nutrients. CAD leads to heart attacks or strokes and is, thus, one of the most important causes of death worldwide. Angiography, an imaging modality for blood vessels, is currently the most accurate method of diagnosing artery stenosis. However, the disadvantages of this method such as complications, costs, and possible side effects have prompted researchers to investigate alternative solutions. Objectives: The current study aimed to use data analysis, a non-invasive and less costly method, and various data mining algorithms to predict the stenosis of arteries. Among many people who refer to hospitals due to chest pain, a great number of them are normal and as such do not need angiography. The objective of this study was to predict patients who are most probably normal using features with the highest correlations with CAD with a view to obviate angiography costs and complications. Not a substitute for angiography, this method would select high-risk cases that definitely need angiography. Patients and Methods: Different features were measured and collected from potential patients in order to construct a dataset, which was later utilized for model extraction. Most of the proposed methods in the literature have not considered the stenosis of each artery separately, whereas the present study employed laboratory and echocardiographic data to diagnose the stenosis of each artery separately. The data were gathered from 303 random visitors to Rajaie Cardiovascular, Medical and Research Center. Electrocardiographic (ECG) data were studied in our previous works. The goal of this study was, therefore, to seek the accuracy of echocardiographic and laboratory features to predict CAD patients that require angiography. Results: Bagging and C4.5 classification algorithms were drawn upon to analyse the data, the former reaching accuracy rates of 79.54%, 61.46%, and 68.96% for the diagnosis of the stenoses of the left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), and right coronary artery (RCA), respectively. The accuracy to predict the LAD stenosis was attained via feature selection. In the current study, features effective in the stenosis of arteries were further determined, and some rules for the evaluation of triglyceride, hemoglobin, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and ejection fraction were extracted. Conclusions: The current study presents the highest accuracy value to diagnose the LAD stenosis in the literature.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  19 817 92
REVIEW ARTICLE
Pharmacologic approaches against Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) in diabetic cardiovascular disease
Antonio Nenna, Francesco Nappi, Sanjeet Singh Avtaar Singh, Fraser W Sutherland, Fabio Di Domenico, Massimo Chello, Cristiano Spadaccio
April-June 2015, 4(2):5-5
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.4(2)2015.26949  
Context: Advanced Glycation End-Products (AGEs) are signaling proteins associated to several vascular and neurological complications in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. AGEs proved to be a marker of negative outcome in both diabetes management and surgical procedures in these patients. The reported role of AGEs prompted the development of pharmacological inhibitors of their effects, giving rise to a number of both preclinical and clinical studies. Clinical trials with anti-AGEs drugs have been gradually developed and this review aimed to summarize most relevant reports. Evidence Acquisition: Evidence acquisition process was performed using PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov with manually checked articles. Results: Pharmacological approaches in humans include aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, benfotiamine, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, statin, ALT-711 (alagebrium) and thiazolidinediones. The most recent promising anti-AGEs agents are statins, alagebrium and thiazolidinediones. The role of AGEs in disease and new compounds interfering with their effects are currently under investigation in preclinical settings and these newer anti-AGEs drugs would undergo clinical evaluation in the next years. Compounds with anti-AGEs activity but still not available for clinical scenarios are ALT-946, OPB-9195, tenilsetam, LR-90, TM2002, sRAGE and PEDF. Conclusions: Despite most studies confirm the efficacy of these pharmacological approaches, other reports produced conflicting evidences; in almost any case, these drugs were well tolerated. At present, AGEs measurement has still not taken a precise role in clinical practice, but its relevance as a marker of disease has been widely shown; therefore, it is important for clinicians to understand the value of new cardiovascular risk factors. Findings from the current and future clinical trials may help in determining the role of AGEs and the benefits of anti-AGEs treatment in cardiovascular disease.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  17 1,292 270
CASE REPORT
Tuberculous constrictive pericarditis
Gary Tse, Aamir Ali, Francisco Alpendurada, Sanjay Prasad, Claire E Raphael, Vassilis Vassiliou
October-December 2015, 4(4):3-3
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.29614  
Introduction: Constrictive pericarditis is characterized by constriction of the heart secondary to pericardial inflammation. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is useful imaging modality for addressing the challenges of confirming this diagnosis. It can be used to exclude other causes of right heart failure, such as pulmonary hypertension or myocardial infarction, determine whether the pericardium is causing constriction and differentiate it from restrictive cardiomyopathy, which also causes impaired cardiac filling. Case Presentation: A 77-year-old man from a country with high incidence of tuberculosis presented with severe dyspnea. Echocardiography revealed a small left ventricle with normal systolic and mildly impaired diastolic function. Left heart catheterization revealed non-obstructive coronary disease, not felt contributory to the dyspnea. Anatomy imaging with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) showed global, severely thickened pericardium. Short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences for detection of oedema/ inflammation showed increased signal intensity and free breathing sequences confirmed septal flattening on inspiration. Late gadolinium imaging confirmed enhancement in the pericardium, with all findings suggestive of pericardial inflammation and constriction. Conclusions: CMRwith STIRsequences, free breathing sequences and late gadolinium imaging can prove extremely useful for diagnosing constrictive pericarditis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  16 1,254 183
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Ionizing radiation-induced cataract in interventional cardiology staff
Ahmad Bitarafan Rajabi, Feridoun Noohi, Hassan Hashemi, Majid Haghjoo, Mohammad Miraftab, Nahid Yaghoobi, Fereydon Rastgou, Hadi Malek, Hoshang Faghihi, Hassan Firouzabadi, Soheila Asgari, Farhad Rezvan, Hamidreza Khosravi, Sara Soroush, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
January-March 2015, 4(1):4-4
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.25148  
Background: The use of ionizing radiation has led to advances in medical diagnosis and treatment. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of radiation cataractogenesis in the interventionists and staff performing various procedures in different interventional laboratories. Patients and Methods: This cohort study included 81 interventional cardiology staff. According to the working site, they were classified into 5 groups. The control group comprised 14 professional nurses who did not work in the interventional sites. Participants were assigned for lens assessment by two independent trained ophthalmologists blinded to the study. Results: The electrophysiology laboratory staff received higher doses of ionizing radiation (17.2 ± 11.9 mSv; P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between the years of working experience and effective dose in the lens (P < 0.001). In general, our findings showed that the incidence of lens opacity was 79% (95% CI, 69.9-88.1) in participants with exposure (the case group) and our findings showed that the incidence of lenses opacity was 7.1% (95% CI:23-22.6) with the relative risk (RR) of 11.06 (P < 0.001). Conclusions: We believe that the risk of radiation-induced cataract in cardiology interventionists and staff depends on their work site. As the radiation dose increases, the prevalence of posterior eye changes increases.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  15 1,199 189
Heart ABCA1 and ppar- α genes expression responses in male rats: Effects of high intensity treadmill running training and aqueous extraction of black crataegus-pentaegyna
Abbass Ghanbari-Niaki, Safieyh Ghanbari-Abarghooi, Fatemeh Rahbarizadeh, Navabeh Zare-Kookandeh, Monireh Gholizadeh, Fatemeh Roudbari, Asghar Zare-Kookandeh
October-December 2013, 2(4):153-159
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.13892  
Introduction: Heart as a high metabolic and aerobic tissue is consuming lipid as a fuel for its energy provision at rest during light and moderate exercise, except when lactate level is higher in blood circulation. It has been shown that any type of regular exercise and crataegus species would improve cardiovascular function and minimizes several risk factors via stimulating lipid metabolism by acting on enzymes and genes expression such as ABCA1 and PPAR α which are involving in this process. Materials and Methods: Twenty Wistar male rats (4-6 weeks old, 140-173 g weight) were used. Animals were randomly classified into training (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups and then divided into saline-control (SC), saline-training (ST), Crataegus-Pentaegyna -control (CPC), and Crataegus-Pentaegyna -training (CPT) groups. Training groups have performed a high-intensity running program (at 34 m/min (0% grade), 60 min/day, 5 days/week) on a motor-driven treadmill for eight weeks. Animals were orally fed with Crataegus-Pentaegyna extraction (500mg/kg) and saline solution for six weeks. Seventy- two hours after the last training session, rats were sacrificed, hearts were excised, cleaned and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C until RNA extraction. Plasma also was collected for plasma variable measurements. Statistical analysis was performed using a two way analysis of variance, and significance was accepted at P < 0.05. Results: A non-significant (P < 0.4, P < 0.79, respectively) increase in ABCA1 and PPAR α genes expression was accompanied by a significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.04, P < 0.04, respectively) reduction in TC, TG, and VLDL-C levels in Crataegus-Pentaegyna groups. Conclusions: Our findings show that a high intensity treadmill running was able to express ABCA1 and PPAR α in rat heart. Data also possibly indicate that the Crataeguse-Pentaegyna supplementation solely could mimic training effect on the mentioned genes and lipid profiles via different mechanism(s).
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  14 1,107 154
Predictors of prolonged mechanical ventilation in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease
Avisa Tabib, Seyed Ehsan Abrishami, Mohammad Mahdavi, Hojjat Mortezaeian, Ziae Totonchi
July-September 2016, 5(3):3-3
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.30391  
Background: The duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) is one of the most important clinical factors which predict outcomes in pediatric cardiac surgery. The prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) following cardiac surgery is a multifactorial phenomenon and there are conflicts regarding its predictors in pediatric population between different centers. Objectives: The current study aimed to describe PMVpredictors in patients undergoing cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease in a tertiary center for pediatric cardiovascular diseases in Iran. Patients and Methods: From May to December 2014, all pediatric patients (less than a month -15 years old) admitted to pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) after congenital heart surgeries were consecutively included. The PMV was defined as mechanical ventila- tion duration more than 72 hours as medium PMV and more than seven days as extended PMV. The demographic data and variables probably related to PMV were recorded during the PICU stay. Results: A total of 300 patients, 56.7% male, were enrolled in this study. Their mean age was 32 ± 40 months .The median duration (IQR) of MVwas 18 hours (8.6 - 48 hours). The incidence of PMV more than 72 hours and seven days was 20% and 10.7%, respectively. Younger age, lower weight, heart failure, higher doses of inotropes, pulmonary hypertension, respiratory infections and delayed sternal closure were independent predictors of PMV in multivariate analyses. Conclusions: The results of this study indicated that PMV predictors could be specific for each center and a good administration program is needed for each pediatric cardiac surgery center for the preoperative management of patients undergoing congenital heart surgeries.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  14 727 126
Factors influencing prolonged icu stay after open heart surgery
Rasoul Azarfarin, Nasibeh Ashouri, Ziae Totonchi, Hooman Bakhshandeh, Alireza Yaghoubi
October-December 2014, 3(4):2-2
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.20159  
Background: There are different risk factors that affect the intensive care unit (ICU) stay after cardiac surgery. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible risk factors influencing prolonged ICU stay in a large referral hospital. Patients and Methods: We conducted a case-control study to determinate causes of prolonged ICU stay in 280 adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a tertiary care center for cardiovascular patients, Tehran, Iran. These patients were divided into two groups according to ICU stay ≤ 96 and > 96 hours. We evaluated perioperative risk factors of ICU stay > 96 hours. Results: Among the 280 patients studied, 184 (65.7%) had stayed ≤ 96 hours and 96 (34.3%) had stayed > 96 hours in ICU. Frequency of prolonged ICU stay was 34.2% in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), 30.8% in patients with valve surgery, and 44.8% in patients with CABG plus valve surgery. Patients with > 96 hours of ICU stay received more blood transfusion and intravenous inotropes. They also had longer anesthesia, cardiopulmonary bypass, and postoperative intubation time. There were higher incidence of postoperative tamponade, re-exploration, re-intubation, hemodialysis, and hypotension in this group (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions: In this study, about one-third of patients had prolonged ICU stay. Factors influencing prolonged ICU stay were medical and some non-medical factors. In the present study, up to 30% of the patients had a prolonged ICU stay of > 96 hours. Additional data from well-designed investigations are needed for further assessment of the factors influencing prolonged ICU stay after cardiac surgery.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  13 1,121 209
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Pericardial effusion after pediatric cardiac surgeries: a single center observation
Mohammad Dalili, Hassan Zamani, Mohammadyousef Aarabi-Moghaddam
January-March 2012, 1(1):28-32
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.4601  
Background: Development of fibrinous pericarditis after pericardiotomy is a well-recognized reaction. Within a few post-operative days, the inflammated surface of pericardium begins to fuse to the overlying sternum. Objectives: Our aim was to assess the prevalence, risk factors, time course and therapy response of pericardial effusion (PE) after cardiac surgeries in children. Patients and Methods: PE occurrence was assessed prospectively in 486 children who underwent cardiac surgery for congenital heart diseases by serial echocardiography. Clinical manifestations were observed and response to different therapies was analyzed. Results: The prevalence of PE was about 10% for all cardiac surgeries. Symptoms were exclusively seen in patients who had moderate to large effusions. The mean onset of pericardial effusion was 11 (± 8) days after surgery procedure, with 87 % (42 of 48) of cases being diagnosed on or before day 13 after operation. The prevalence of effusion after Fontan-type procedures and AVSD repair (29 %, 5 of 17 for both) was significantly higher than other types of cardiac surgeries. Aspirin administration was effective in 77 % and prednisone in 90 % of the cases. Conclusions: PE may be developed as late as weeks after cardiac surgeries. PE after palliative cardiac surgeries is not uncommon. Low doses of aspirin and corticosteroids are usually effective for treating this complication.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  11 982 164
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Inferior vena cava and hemodynamic congestion
Renato De Vecchis, Cesare Baldi
July-September 2015, 4(3):3-3
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.28913v2  
Background: Among the indices able to replace invasive central venous pressure (CVP) measurement for patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) the diameters of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and their respiratory fluctuationsj so-called IVC collapsibility index (IVCCI) measured by echocardiography, have recently gained ground as a quite reliable proxy of CVP. Objectives: The aims of our study were to compare three different ways of evaluating cardiac overload by using the IVC diameters and/or respiratory fluctuations and by calculating the inter-method agreement Patients and Methods: Medical records of patients hospitalized for right or bi-ventricular acute decompensated heart failure from January to December 2013 were retrospectively evaluated. The predictive significance of the IVC expiratory diameter and IVC collapsibility index (IVCCI) was analyzed using three different methodsj namely a) the criteria for the indirect estimate of right atrial pressure by Rudski et al. (J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2010); b) the categorization into three IVCCI classes by Stawicki et al. (J Am Coll Surg. 2009); and c) the subdivision based on the value of the maximum IVC diameter by Pellicori et al. (JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2013). Results: Among forty-seven enrolled patientsj those classified as affected by persistent congestion were 22 (46.8%) using Rudski’s criteria1 or 16 (34%) using Stawicki’s criteriaj or 13 (27.6%) using Pellicori’s criteria. The inter-rater agreement was rather poor by comparing Rudski’s criteria with those of Stawicki (Cohen’s kappa = 0.369; 95% CI 0.197 to 0.54) as well as by comparing Rudski’s criteria with those of Pellicori (Cohen’s kappa = 0.299; 95% CI 0.135 to 0.462). Further a substantially unsatisfactory concordance was also found for Stawicki’s criteria compared to those of Pellicori (Cohen’s kappa= 0.468; 95% CI 0.187 to 0.75). Conclusions: The abovementioned IVC ultrasonographic criteria for hemodynamic congestion appear clearly inconsistent. Alternatively, a sequential or simultaneous combination of clinical scores of congestion IVC ultrasonographic indicesj and circulating levels of natriuretic peptides could be warranted.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  11 982 206
Investigation the relationship between self-care and readmission in patients with chronic heart failure
Ali Sahebi, Jaleh Mohammad-Aliha, Mohammadmostafa Ansari-Ramandi, Nasim Naderi
January-March 2015, 4(1):5-5
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.25472  
Background: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with unpredictably increased prevalence of hospital admissions. Self-care is one of the most important aspects of management for patients with CHF. Self-care adequacy has led to increased satisfaction, independence in daily activities, reduced stress, and morbidity. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between self-care behavior and readmission rate in patients with heart failure. Patients and Methods: A total of 287 patients with a diagnosis of systolic CHF with a left ventricular ejection fraction less than 35% admitted for acute heart failure were enrolled. The self-care behavior was assessed using SCHFI questionnaires that have three domains (self-care maintenance, self-care management, and self-care confidence). An acquired score greater than 70 was considered as proper self- care index. The study population was followed over three months after discharge for readmission. Results: This study showed that self-care behavior was improper in our study population. More than 75% of patients had a score less than 70 in the different domains for self-care. The multivariable regression analyses showed a significant relationship between self-care management (ß=1.6, P = 0.006, OR (CI) = 2.66 (137-5.1) and self-care confidence (ß = 0.9, P = 0.02, OR (CI) = 2.01 (1.1-3.68) and readmission rate. Conclusions: We concluded that a good administration program such as education and a surveillance plan for the improvement of self- care behaviors would reduce hospital readmissions in patients with heart failure.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  10 1,216 231
LV dyssynchrony assessed with phase analysis on gated myocardial perfusion spect can predict response to crt in patients with end-stage heart failure
Nasrin Azizian, Fereydoon Rastgou, Tahereh Ghaedian, Allahyar Golabchi, Behdad Bahadorian, Vida Khanlarzadeh, Zahra Azizian, Majid Haghjoo
October-December 2014, 3(4):6-6
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.20720  
Background: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established treatment in patients with end-stage heart failure and wide QRS complex. However, about 30% of patients do not benefit from CRT (non-responder). Recent studies with tissue Doppler imaging yielded disappointing results in predicting CRT responders. Phase analysis was developed to allow assessment of LV dyssynchrony by gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (GMPS). Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate the role of quantitative GMPS-derived LV dyssynchrony data to predict CRT responder. Patients and Methods: Thirty eligible patients for CRT implantation underwent GMPS and echocardiography. Response to CRT was evaluated six months after the device implantation. Clinical response to CRT was defined as 50 meters increase in 6-minute walking test (6-MWT) distance. Echocardiographic response to CRT was defined as ≥ 15% decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV). The lead position was considered concordant if it was positioned at the area of latest mechanical activation, and discordant if located outside the area of latest mechanical activation. Results: Clinical response to CRT was observed in 74% of patients. However, only 57% of patients were responder according to the echo criteria. There were statistically significant differences between CRT responders and non-responders for GMPS-derived variables, including phased histogram bandwidth (PHB), phase SD (PSD), and Entropy. Moreover, a cutoff value of 112° for PHB with a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 70%, a cutoff value of 21° for PSD with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 74%, and a cutoff of 52% for Entropy with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 80% were considered to discriminate responders and non-responders. CRT response was more likely in patients with concordant LV lead position compared to those with discordant LV lead position. Conclusions: GMPS-derived LV dyssynchrony variables can predict response to CRT with good sensitivity and specificity.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  9 1,064 189
Evaluation of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm) effects on heart electrical system
Siyavash Joukar, Haleh Asadipour
April-June 2015, 4(2):6-6
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.4(2)2015.27013  
Background: Melissa officinalis, an herbal drug, is well known and frequently applied in traditional and modern medicine. Yet, there is inadequate information regarding its effects on electrical properties of the heart. The present study attempted to elucidate the effects of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract on electrocardiogram (ECG) in rat. Objectives: ECG is an easy, fast and valuable tool to evaluate the safety of used materials and drugs on heart electrical and conductivity properties. Many drugs with no cardiovascular indication or any overt cardiovascular effects of therapeutic dosing become cardiotoxic when overdosed (16). On the other hand, there are numerous substances and drugs that can cause ECG changes, even in patients without a history of cardiac disease. Therefore, this study was conducted to elucidate safety and outcome of one-week administration of M. officinalis aqueous extract on blood pressure and ECG parameters of rats. Materials and Methods: Four animal groups received tap water (control group), aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis 50 (M50),100 (M100) and 200 (M200) mg/kg/day, respectively and orally for a week. ECG and blood pressure were recorded on the eighth day of experiment. Results: Consumption of Melissa officinalis extract associated with prolonged QRS interval (P < 0.05 for M50 and M100 groups and P < 0.01 for M200 group versus the control group, respectively), prolonged QTc and JT intervals (P < 0.01 for different M groups versus the control group) and prolonged TpTe interval (P < 0.001 when M groups compared with the control group) of ECG. However, different doses of the extract had no significant effect on RR interval, PR interval, amplitudes of ECG waves, heart rate and blood pressure. Conclusions: For the first time, this study revealed that consumption of Melissa officinalis extract is associated with significant ECG alterations in rat. Future studies are necessary to determine potential clinical outcomes.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  9 929 137
The relation of respiratory muscle strength to disease severity and abnormal ventilation during exercise in chronic heart failure patients
Yusuke Kasahara, Kazuhiro P Izawa, Satoshi Watanabe, Naohiko Osada, Kazuto Omiya
October-December 2015, 4(4):6-6
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.28944  
Background: Breathlessness is a common problem in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, and respiratory muscle strength has been proposed to play an important role in causing breathlessness in these patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between respiratory muscle strength and the severity of CHF, and the influence of respiratory muscle strength on abnormal ventilation during exercise in CHF patients. Patients and Methods: In this case series study, we assessed clinically stable CHF outpatients (N = 66, age: 57.7 ± 14.6 years). The peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2), the slope relating minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope), and the slope relating tidal volume to respiratory rate (TV/RR slope) were measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). Results: The MIP and MEP decreased significantly as the New York Heart Association functional class increased (MIP, P = 0.021; MEP, P < 0.01). The MIP correlated with the TV/RR slope (r = 0.57, P < 0.001) and the VE/VCO2 slope (r = -0.44, P < 0.001), and the MEP also correlated with the TV/RR slope (r = 0.53, P < 0.001) and the VE/VCO2 slope (r=-0.25, P < 0.040). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that age and MIP were statistically significant predictors of the TV/RR and VE/VCO2 slopes (both P < 0.05). Conclusions: Respiratory muscle strength is related to the severity of CHF, and associated with rapid and shallow ventilation or excessive ventilation during exercise.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  9 2,096 177
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Development and validation of the first iranian questionnaire to assess quality of life in patients with heart failure: IHF-QoL
Nasim Naderi, Hooman Bakhshandeh, Ahmad Amin, Sepideh Taghavi, Masoumeh Dadashi, Majid Maleki
January-March 2012, 1(1):10-16
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.4186  
Background: In its Constitution of 1948, WHO defined health as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity” . In 1994, the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research published clinical practice guidelines recommending providers to routinely evaluate patients' HRQoL (Health Related Quality of Life) and use their assessment to modify and guide patient care. Objectives: to create a valid, sensitive, disease-specific Persian health status quality of life questionnaire for patients with chronic heart failure in Iran. Materials and Methods: Considering the existing relevant inventories and scientific literature, the authors designed the first draft of questionnaire which was modified and validated, using expert opinions and finalized in a session of expert panel. The questionnaire was processed among 130 patients with heart failure. Construct validity evaluated by principle component factor analysis, and promax method was used for factor rotation. MacNew quality of life questionnaire was selected to assess convergence validity, and the agreements were measured in 60 patients. Discriminant validity was also assessed. Thirty patients were followed for 3 months and responsiveness of questionnaire was measured. Cronbach's alpha, item analysis, and Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to investigate reliability of questionnaire. SPSS 15 for Windows was applied for statistical analysis. Results: Principle component factor analysis revealed 4 main components. Sub-group analysis suggested that IHF-QoL questionnaire demonstrated an acceptable discriminant validity. High conformity between this inventory and MacNew questionnaire revealed an appropriate convergence validity. Cronbach's alpha (α) for the overall questionnaire was equal to 0.922. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for all components were significant (from. 708 to. 883; all P values < 0.001). Patients fallow-up revealed an acceptable responsiveness of our questionnaire. Conclusions: IHF-QoL questionnaire is a valid and reliable inventory. It can be applied in daily clinical practice and in the clinical research context.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  8 993 165
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac function in ischemic rats: Value of m-mode echocardiography
Amir Darbandi Azar, Fatemeh Tavakoli, Hassan Moladoust, Asghar Zare, Anita Sadeghpour
October-December 2014, 3(4):5-5
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.22941  
Background: Echocardiography is a well-established diagnostic tool for a safe, reproducible and accurate evaluation of cardiac anatomy, hemodynamics and function in clinical practice. Objectives: We sought to demonstrate the efficacy and feasibility of M-mode echocardiography to evaluate cardiac structure and function in normal and MI-induced adult rats. Materials and Methods: All animal procedures were approved by the ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and the investigation conformed to the “Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals” published by the United States National Institutes of Health. Forty-eight male Wistar rats weighing 280-300 grams were obtained from a single breeding colony. The statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 20.0. Results: Echocardiographic measurements were possible in all rats before and after the operation. In our survey, we studied echocardiographic alterations in rats after MI induction. Changes can be seen in all echocardiographic mean values after myocardial infarction (MI), but significant decrease (P < 0.01) of Fractional shortening and Ejection Fraction as well as significant increase (P < 0.05) of end systolic diameter and systolic volume after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation can be good signs of MI induction. Conclusions: In light of our results, it can be concluded that we succeeded in establishing a precise echocardiographic method to confidently assess the success of LAD ligation surgery in rats. It is feasible to thoroughly monitor the functional efficiency of regional therapeutic interventions such as intra-myocardial stem cell injection.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  8 782 163
Evaluation of the clinical and procedural predictive factors of no-reflow phenomenon following primary percutaneous coronary intervention
Seifollah Abdi, Omid Rafizadeh, Mohammadmehdi Peighambari, Hoseinali Basiri, Hooman Bakhshandeh
April-June 2015, 4(2):4-4
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.4(2)2015.25414  
Background: The no-reflow phenomenon is an uncommon and critical occurrence which myocardial reperfusion does not restore to its optimal level. Several predisposing factors of the no-reflow phenomenon have been identified. However, at present we know little about clinical predictors of no-reflow after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Objectives: In this study, we evaluated clinical predictors of no-reflow phenomenon after PCI in patients with acute STEMI, to plan a better treatment of these patients. Patients and Methods: During an 18-month period, from 2013 to 2014, 438 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) presenting within the first 24 hours from symptoms onset were treated with primary PCI in the Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow was measured in all patients on the first angiography, following stenting. A total of 49 patients were allocated to the case group, based on the no-reflow phenomenon occurred during primary PCI (TIMI grade 0 and 1) and 50 patients without the no-reflow phenomenon (TIMI grades 3) were randomly selected, as the control group. They were evaluated from the point of demographic variables and also infarction territory, pain duration, maximal ST-change, left ventricle (LV) function, laboratory data, coronary anatomy, culprit vessel, location of lesion, target vessel diameter, lesion length, eccentricity, thrombus grade, tortuosity, lesion angulation, bifurcation, predilation, postdilation, thrombus aspiration, number of stent, in stent thrombosis. Data were then analyzed with the SPSS statistical software. Results: Mean age of patients was 59.47 (SD = 12.48) years, of which 75 (75.8%) were male and 24 (24.2%) were female. Based on univariable analysis, white blood cell (WBC) count, pain duration, LV function, maximal ST-change, thrombus grade and eccentricity were identified as predictors of the no-reflow phenomenon. After multivariable logistic regression: WBC count and thrombus grade remained the significant independent predictors of the no-reflow phenomenon (P < 0.05). In case group, slow-flow was seen in 42 (9.5%), while no-reflow was seen in seven (1.6%) patients. Conclusions: The WBC count and thrombus grade are strong, independent predictive factors of developing the no-reflow phenomenon, in AMI patients undergoing primary PCI. There is also an association between the no-reflow phenomenon and pain duration, maximal ST-change, LV function, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), bifurcation, eccentricity and coronary anatomy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  8 1,017 154
Coronary slow flow phenomenon: Clinical findings and predictors
Hamidreza Sanati, Reza Kiani, Farshad Shakerian, Ata Firouzi, Ali Zahedmehr, Mohammadmehdi Peighambari, Leila Shokrian, Peiman Ashrafi
January-March 2016, 5(1):5-5
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.30296  
Background: In some patients with chest pain, selective coronary angiography reveals slow contrast agent passage through the epicardial coronary arteries in the absence of stenosis. This phenomenon has been designated the slow coronary flow (SCF) phenomenon. Objectives: In this study, we aimed to describe the demographic and clinical findings and presence of common atherosclerosis risk factors in patients with the SCF phenomenon. Patients and Methods: Between October 2014 and March 2015, demographic data, clinical histories, atherosclerosis risk factors, and laboratory and angiographic findings were recorded for all consecutive patients scheduled for coronary angiography and diagnosed with the SCF phenomenon, as well as a control group (patients with normal epicardial coronary arteries; NECA). SCF was diagnosed based on the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count (TFC). A TFC > 27 indicated a diagnosis of SCF phenomenon. Results: Among the 3600 patients scheduled for selective coronary angiography, 75 (2%) met the SCF criteria. SCF and NECA patients did not exhibit statistically significant differences in traditional risk factors except for hypertension, which was more prevalent in SCF than NECA patients (52% versus 31%, P = 0.008). A multivariable analysis indicated a low body mass index, presence of hypertension, low high- density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) level, and high hemoglobin level as independent predictors of the SCF phenomenon; of these, hypertension was the strongest predictor (odds ratio = 6.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.2 - 17.9, P = 0.001). Conclusions: The SCF phenomenon is relatively frequent, particularly among patients with acute coronary syndrome who are scheduled for coronary angiography. Hypertension, a low HDL-c level, and high hemoglobin level can be considered independent predictors of this phenomenon.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  8 689 101
Oral L-arginine administration improves anthropometric and biochemical indices associated with cardiovascular diseases in obese patients: A randomized, single blind placebo controlled clinical trial
Arash Dashtabi, Zohreh Mazloom, Mohammad Fararouei, Najmeh Hejazi
January-March 2016, 5(1):6-6
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.29419  
Background: Recently, the potential of L-arginine supplementation as a novel and effective strategy for weight loss and improving biochemical parameters in obese patients has been under consideration. Objectives: To evaluate the influence of 8-week oral L-arginine supplementation on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), triceps skinfold (TS), subscapular skinfold (SS), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), plasma fasting blood sugar (FBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in patients with BMI values > 29.9 or visceral obesity (WC > 102 cm in men or > 88 cm in women). Patients and Methods: Ninety obese patients were included in a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive either L-arginine (3 or 6 g thrice daily) or placebo for 8 weeks. Anthropometric and biochemical indices, dietary intake, and blood pressure values were measured at the baseline and after the 8-week intervention. Results: Significant decreases in anthropometric parameters, blood pressure (SBP, DBP), FBS, HbA1c, LDL, MDA (P < 0.001), TG (P = 0.02), and TC (P = 0.002) and a significant increase in HDL (P < 0.001) were observed in the intervention group, compared to the control group. In the control group, no significant differences were found between the baseline and end-of-intervention measurements. Conclusions: In conclusion, oral L-Arginine supplementation appears to improve anthropometric parameters, blood pressure values, and some blood biochemical indices associated with cardiovascular disease prevention.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  8 708 97
CASE REPORT
Influenza H1N1 infection leading to cardiac tamponade in a previously healthy patient: A case report
Robinder S Sidhu, Abhinav Sharma, Ian D Paterson, Kevin R Bainey
July-September 2016, 5(3):6-6
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.31546  
Introduction: The cardiac manifestations of influenza A are broad, ranging from self-limited pericarditis to fatal cardiomyopathy. The 2009 H1N1 influenza A (H1N1) strain is a rare cause of pericarditis, and its role in developing a pericardial effusion leading to tamponade has infrequently been reported. Case Presentation: We describe a case of a young female with no prior cardiovascular history who presents with a pericardial effusion and shock secondary to cardiac tamponade from pericarditis due to H1N1 influenza A. Conclusions: This case highlights the potential severity of H1N1 infections and the utility of considering cardiac tamponade in patients presenting with influenza symptoms and circulatory collapse.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  7 648 96
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Normal reference values of tissue doppler imaging parameters for right ventricular function in young adults: A population based study
Maryam Shojaeifard, Maryam Esmaeilzadeh, Majid Maleki, Hooman Bakhshandeh, Fatemeh Parvaresh, Nasim Naderi
October-December 2013, 2(4):160-166
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.9843  
Background: Tissue Doppler imaging is used routinely to quantify both left and right ventricular function. However, normal reference values of echocardiography parameters of the right ventricle in Iranian population are still unknown. Objectives: Accordingly, we conducted a study to determine the normal values of echocardiography parameters of right ventricular function in a healthy Iranian population. Patients and Methods: One hundred and eighty seven healthy volunteer subjects enrolled. Normal subjects were chosen by taking into account history, physical examination, ECG and echocardiography. Results: Reference ranges (5th and 95th percentile values) for tricuspid E velocity, A velocity, E/A ratio, deceleration time, annular Sa velocity, Ea velocity, and E/Ea ratio were derived for the whole individuals and for each of the three age groups (< 30, 30–39, 40-49). The deceleration time, E/ Ea ratio and acceleration time of the iso-volumetric contraction time (IVA) were greater in male than in female. All measured parameters were bigger but not statistically significant in the 40-49 year-old group in comparison with the < 30 year-old group. Comparison of data between different groups showed no significant differences between the majority of data when they have been adjusted to body surface area, age and sex. Conclusions: The reference ranges presented for the echocardiography parameters of right ventricular function, albeit not conducted in a sizable sample of normal cases, will help to standardize the assessment of RV functions, particularly by tissue Doppler imaging.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  7 897 146
Impact of metabolic syndrome on mortality and morbidity after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery
Maryam Ardeshiri, Zahra Faritus, Zahra Ojaghi Haghighi, Hooman Bakhshandeh, Faranak Kargar, Rokhsareh Aghili
July-September 2014, 3(3):7-7
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.20270  
Background: The prevalence of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been increased in Asian countries. It represents a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, lipid abnormality and hypertension. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MetS and outcome in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). Patients and Methods: This prospective study was performed on patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG). All the patients were followed up in hospital and three months afterward. Patients were excluded if they were younger than 18 years or had severe comorbidities, a history of valvular heart disease, and low ejection fraction. Results: A total of 235 patients (135 women) with a mean age of 59 ± 9.3 years were included. MetS was more prevalent in women (P < 0.001). The most prevalent complications were bleeding [20 (8.5%)] and dysrhythmia [18 (7.7%)]. At three months follow-up, the frequency rates of readmission [24 (10.2%)] and mediastinitis [9 (3.8%)] were higher than other complications. Diabetes and MetS were risk factors for a long ICU stay (> 5 days) and atelectasia (P < 0.05). Significant associations were observed between diabetes and pulmonary embolism (P = 0.025) and mediastinitis (P = 0.051). Conclusions: Identification of MetS before CABG can predict the surgery outcome. Patients with MetS have increased risks for longer ICU stay and atelectasia.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  7 1,059 159
CASE REPORTS
Eosinophilic endomyocardial fibrosis and strongyloides stercoralis: A case report
Zahra Alizadeh-Sani, Anoushiravan Vakili-Zarch, Majid Kiavar, Behdad Bahadorian, Abas Nabavi
April-June 2013, 2(2):104-105
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.9370  
A 64-year-old female with history of previous aortoiliac occlusion and aortoiliac bypass operation four months ago presented with dyspnea, ascites and leg edema. She has been suffering from bloody diarrhea since two weeks earlier. Laboratory data showed important eosinophilia and stool examination was positive for Strongyloides stercoralis. Patient had clinical signs of heart failure. A cardiac MRI revealed hypersignal subendocardium in favor of endomyocardial fibrosis. Hypereosinophilic syndrome is defined by persistent hypereosinophilia for more than 6 months. The association with different etiologies is known but the report of cardiac involvement due to S. stercoralis infection is not very common. Cardiac manifestation is characterized by a restrictive cardiomyopathy due to toxic damage produced by activated eosinophils.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  6 841 133
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Autonomic dysfunction predicts poor physical improvement after cardiac rehabilitation in patients with heart failure
Leonida Compostella, Russo Nicola, Setzu Tiziana, Compostella Caterina, Bellotto Fabio
October-December 2014, 3(4):7-7
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.25237  
Background: Cardiac autonomic dysfunction, clinically expressed by reduced heart rate variability (HRV), is present in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and is related to the degree of left ventricular dysfunction. In athletes, HRV is an indicator of ability to improve performance. No similar data are available for CHF. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess whether HRV could predict the capability of CHF patients to improve physical fitness after a short period of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Patients and Methods: This was an observational, non-randomized study, conducted on 57 patients with advanced CHF, admitted to a residential cardiac rehabilitation unit 32 ± 22 days after an episode of acute heart failure. Inclusion criteria were sinus rhythm, stable clinical conditions, no diabetes and ejection fraction = 35%. HRV (time-domain) and mean and minimum heart rate (HR) were evaluated using 24-h Holter at admission. Patients' physical fitness was evaluated at admission by 6-minute walking test (6MWT) and reassessed after two weeks of intensive exercise-based CR. Exercise capacity was evaluated by a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Results: Patients with very depressed HRV (SDNN 55.8 ± 10.0 ms) had no improvement in their walking capacity after short CR, walked shorter absolute distances at final 6MWT (348 ± 118 vs. 470 ± 109 m; P = 0.027) and developed a peak-VO2 at CPET significantly lower than patients with greater HRV parameters (11.4 ± 3.7 vs. an average > 16 ± 4 mL/kg/min). Minimum HR, but not mean HR, showed a negative correlation (ρ = -0.319) with CPET performance. Conclusions: In patients with advanced CHF, depressed HRV and higher minimum HR were predictors of poor working capacity after a short period of exercise-based CR. An individualized and intensive rehabilitative intervention should be considered for these patients.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  6 946 169
Deep sedation in patients undergoing atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia ablation
Amirfarjam Fazelifar, Ali Eskandari, Mohammadjafar Hashemi, Mostafa Alavi, Mohammadzia Totounchi, Azam Forghanian, Mahboubeh Zeighami, Zahra Emkanjoo, Majid Haghjoo
October-December 2013, 2(4):176-179
DOI:10.5812/cardiovascmed.10719  
Background: General anesthesia and deep sedation can be used during cardiac EPS to relief pain and provide comfort and immobility, but many electrophysiologists avoid sedation for better arrhythmia induction. Objective: To determine anesthesia effects in ablation procedures in adults, we used intravenous anesthetic agents in patients who underwent slow pathway ablation. Patients and Methods: One hundred patients who were to undergo radiofrequency catheter ablation were randomly assigned to with and without intravenous anesthesia groups. All patients had palpitation with a documented electrocardiography (ECG) compatible with atrio-ventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). We used propofol, fentanyl and midazolam for intravenous sedation. Electrophysiological parameters were checked for the two groups and compared before and after the ablation. Results: Electrophysiological parameters were not significantly different in the two groups. In the anesthetic group, patients were more satisfied with the procedure (P value < 0. 001). Conclusions: Intravenous anesthesia could be done safely in patients who underwent electrophysiological procedures. It had no effect on arrhythmia induction or slow pathway ablation in patients with documented AVNRT.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  6 837 138
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