• Users Online: 41
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 
Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 89-93

Clinical Characteristics, Angiographic Profile, and Hospital Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Women Less than 55 Years of Age in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Northern Kerala


Department of Cardiology, Academy of Medical Science, Kannur, Kerala, India

Date of Submission28-Aug-2020
Date of Acceptance08-Oct-2020
Date of Web Publication24-Dec-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ashraf S Manzil
Department of Cardiology, Academy of Medical Science, Pariyaram, Kannur - 670 503, Kerala
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/rcm.rcm_36_20

Get Permissions

  Abstract 


Background: Despite the fact that the incidence of cardiovascular disease is more pronounced in women, there is a lack of evidence-based studies that investigate the characteristics of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Indian women. Aim: The study aimed to assess the clinical characteristics, angiographic profile, and hospital outcomes of ACS in women <55 years of age in a tertiary care hospital of Northern Kerala. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study. In total, 179 women with <55 years of age, who had experienced the first episode of ACS were included in the study. Baseline characteristics including demography, risk factor, clinical presentation, and therapeutic management were reported. Results: Out of 179 female patients, 102 (57%) patients were postmenopausal. The most common risk factors of ACS in our population were found to be dyslipidemia (64.80%), followed by diabetes mellitus (58.10%) and hypertension (41.34%). The most frequent clinical presentation of ACS was non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (49.16%), followed by STEMI (26.26%) and unstable angina (24.58%). Regarding the severity of disease, single-vessel disease (32%) was more common, followed by double-vessel disease (28%) and triple-vessel disease (24%). Left anterior descending artery (116 patients) was the most frequently involved artery in female patients, followed by right coronary artery (72 patients). Postprocedure complications associated with the study were as follows: hematoma (two patients), pseudoaneurysm (one patient), and takotsubo cardiomyopathy (one patient). Deaths were reported in two patients. Conclusions: The epidemiological trend of ACS, especially in the postmenopausal women, has been continuously rising in developing countries including India. Hence, more emphasis should be given on the identification of risk factors, clinical presentation, and diagnosis in this vulnerable group, which is ultimately beneficial for therapeutic management as well as reduces mortality and morbidity.

Keywords: Acute coronary syndrome, coronary artery disease, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention


How to cite this article:
Manzil AS, Pramod P C. Clinical Characteristics, Angiographic Profile, and Hospital Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Women Less than 55 Years of Age in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Northern Kerala. Res Cardiovasc Med 2020;9:89-93

How to cite this URL:
Manzil AS, Pramod P C. Clinical Characteristics, Angiographic Profile, and Hospital Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Women Less than 55 Years of Age in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Northern Kerala. Res Cardiovasc Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 Jan 25];9:89-93. Available from: https://www.rcvmonline.com/text.asp?2020/9/4/89/304785




  Introduction Top


Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in women, representing 1 out of 3 deaths in women without race or ethnicity bias.[1],[2] From 1960 to 1995, the prevalence of CAD in Indian women has risen from 3% to 10% in the urban population, whereas 2%–4% in the rural population.[3] Acute coronary syndrome (ACS), a subcategory of CAD, involves myocardial injury and myocardial infarction (MI) presented with an extensive range of clinical conditions which include unstable angina, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). As per epidemiological data, a gender-related discrepancy in mortality rate has been continually reported with ACS. The women with ACS have a higher risk of mortality in the short course of time, even after successful percutaneous coronary interventions.[4],[5] Diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, as well as autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis have been established as major cardiovascular risk factors in women. Apart, polycystic ovary, early menopause, and history of preeclampsia may also contribute to the development of ACS in women.[6] However, multiple reported studies hypothesized that women with ACS have a worse prognosis than men those with the disease.[7],[8],[9] Altogether, substantial discrepancies were identified among women and men with ACS in terms of clinical presentation, presence of comorbidities, cardiovascular risk factors, and treatment approach.[4] In the literature, there has been the scarcity of data addressing the clinical characteristics of ACS in Indian women. Here, we aimed to study the clinical characteristics, angiographic profile, and hospital outcomes of ACS in female patients <55 years old.


  Materials and Methods Top


Methodology

This observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in India from 2017 to 2018. The study protocol was approved by the institutional ethics committee. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The female patients with <55 years of age, who had experienced the first episode of ACS, including unstable angina, NSTEMI, and STEMI according to a definition given by the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association,[10] were included in the study. Notably, data regarding age, CAD risk factor profile, past history of CAD, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were reported in predefined work pro forma. In addition, clinical manifestations included left ventricular (LV) ejection fractions, left ventricular hypertrophies (LVHs), hematologic indices, coronary angiographic findings, and treatment modalities were also noted. Each patient was subjected to a selective coronary angiogram using standard technique within 48 h of admission unless patients were hemodynamically unstable or with deranged renal parameters.

Definitions used in the study

CAD: Significant CAD is defined as a diameter stenosis >50% in each major epicardial artery.[11]

Normal vessels: Normal vessels are described by the complete absence of any disease in the left main coronary artery (LMCA), left anterior descending (LAD), right coronary artery (RCA), and left circumflex (LCX) as well as their main branches (diagonal, obtuse marginal, ramus intermedius, posterior descending artery, and posterolateral branch).

Data analysis

Descriptive statistics were analyzed using SPSS software package (version 15.0, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).


  Results Top


Baseline characteristics

A total of 179 female patients under the age of 55 years were included in the study. Of which, 102 (57%) women were in the postmenopausal stage. Age-wise distribution revealed that 12 female patients were in the age group between 30 and 39 years, 34 female patients in 40–44 years' age group, 65 female patients in 45–49 years' age group, and 68 female patients in 50–55 years' age group. [Table 1] demonstrates the most common risk factors associated with occurrence of ACS in our study population. In this study, dyslipidemia (64.8%), diabetes mellitus (58.10%), and hypertension (41.34%) were the most prevalent risk factors. As shown in [Table 2], dyspnea (26.82%) was the most common symptoms found in a majority of female patients. The frequently observed clinical presentations of ACS were found to be NSTEMI (49.16%), followed by STEMI (26.26%) and unstable angina (24.58%). With respect to the severity of disease, single-vessel disease (SVD) (32%) was observed in the most cases, followed by a double-vessel disease (DVD) (28%) and triple-vessel disease (TVD) (24%) [Figure 1]. The graphical presentation of involved coronary arteries in female patients is demonstrated in [Figure 2]. In addition, LV dysfunction was assessed by nonvolumetric echocardiographic analysis, and outcomes showed that 46.42% of the female patients had mid-range LV dysfunction, and 53.57% of the female patients had moderate LV dysfunction. Apart from these, LVH was observed in 109 (60.89%) female patients. LAD arteries were the most commonly involved in female patients (116 patients), followed by RCA (72 patients), whereas LMCA (7 patients) and posterolateral ventricular artery (15 patients) were less commonly involved. Out of 179 female patients, 109 (61%) patients underwent angioplasty during the hospitalization, 44 (25%) patients were managed with drug therapy, and 11 (6%) patients were recommended for coronary artery bypass grafting. For angioplasty, sirolimus-eluting stents were used, and the most common size for proximal LAD stents and distal LAD stents were 3 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively. Similarly, stents of 2.75 mm and 2.5 mm size were used for proximal LCX and distal LCX, respectively. The stents used in proximal RCA were around 3 or 3.5 mm in size. Postprocedure complications associated with this study are displayed in [Table 3]. Hematomas (two patients) were managed with blood transfusion. Unfortunately, deaths reported in two patients despite maximum resuscitative measures.
Figure 1: Angiographic profile of acute coronary syndrome in female patients

Click here to view
Figure 2: Graphical representation of involved coronary arteries in female patients

Click here to view
Table 1: The common risk factors of acute coronary syndrome in the female patients (n=179)

Click here to view
Table 2: The clinical presentations of acute coronary syndrome in the enrolled female patients (n=179)

Click here to view
Table 3: Postprocedure complications associated with the female patients (n=179)

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


Recent epidemiological data have forecasted that more than half of cardiovascular disease risks will be borne by Indians in the years ahead.[12] The disease also tends to be more aggressive and manifests in women, especially after menopause.

The findings obtained from the INTERHEART study (>52,000 patients with MIs) demonstrated that women have a delay in the manifestation of coronary heart disease symptoms, notwithstanding mortality has raised promptly in women.[13] Ayanian et al.[7] concluded that women needed additional diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events conducted a study on 26,755 patients from 14 high-income countries. This study postulated that if women with advanced disease have been treated less aggressively, they may have more prone to adverse consequences such as death, MI, stroke, or rehospitalization.[8] Radovanovic et al.[9] reported higher inhospital mortality in female patients. A few pieces of the literature suggested higher adverse effects on elder female patients than the younger one.[14] In the study conducted in Kerala, higher mortality rates were reported in women with STEMI.[15] Two Indian studies, Kerala ACS registry[16] and CREATE,[17] respectively, reported a 22.6% and 23.6% prevalence of ACS. From this detailed literature review, we ultimately hypothesized that risk factors and clinical and angiographic profile in women are much fuzzy. All these studies had been a foundation stone for the present research.

Among Indian women, metabolic risk factors such as dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension have been mainly blamed as the creator of ACS. The National Family Health Survey has been declared a higher prevalence of obesity in Indian women.[18] Between the ages of 40 and 60 years, the levels of estrogen declines in women which contribute to downregulation of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors expressed on the liver cells, in turn, result in high LDL cholesterol levels. These high LDL cholesterols are a strong predictor of heart diseases in women younger than 65 years.[19] After menopause, a rise in levels of total cholesterol, very-LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs) has also been reported.[20] High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels were higher in women as per a national survey report.[19] Stevenson et al.[21] proposed that HDL2 cholesterol subfraction, which is believed to be more cardioprotective than HDL1 or HDL3, demonstrated a remarkable decline after the onset of menopause. Elevated TG concentration is one of the risk factors in women, especially when the HDL cholesterol levels fall below 1.03 mmol/L (40 mg/dL). These probable mechanisms may lead to dyslipidemia and ultimately result in cardiovascular disease in women.

In women, extremely irregular or infrequent menstrual cycles have appeared to be leading cause of diabetes. These menstrual cycles may be related to insulin resistance and thus influence in the development of type 2 (or adult-onset) diabetes.[22] The fact is the relative risk for morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease in women with diabetes ranging from 2 to 5 than those without diabetes.[23] Menopause has no significant relationship with the risk of diabetes as well as further development of CAD.[24]

Hypertension causes LVH as well as the progression of atherosclerosis, which results in CAD.[25] This seems to be a probable mechanism in the development of cardiovascular diseases due to hypertension. As a big concern, Indian women are at much high cardiometabolic risk of CVD, mostly after losing their hormonal protection at menopause.

In this study, the incidence of NSTEMI was found in 49.16% of the cases, STEMI in 26.26% of the cases, and unstable angina in 24.58% of the cases. The Kerala ACS registry[16] reported a 37% prevalence for STEMI, 31% for NSTEMI, and 32% for unstable angina. Kumar et al.[26] reported less prevalence than the former two studies. Women have a lower prevalence of LVH on any blood pressure level, however, the prevalence is increased gradually with older age and after menopause as well. Existing data hint that not only hypertension but also LVH is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in women.[27]

In this study, the SVD was observed in the majority of patients, followed by double vessel and triple vessel. Correspondingly, Kumar et al.[26] and Tewari et al.[28] reported a higher prevalence of SVD in female patients. The dominant vessels involved in female patients were LAD present in 72 patients. This value is comparable to the study reported by Ezhumalai and Jayaraman.[11]

Several potential limitations associated with the study need to be considered. First, being an observational study, many confounding factors influenced the final outcomes. Second, we have only examined the patients who visited the hospital, so it might not be a true representative of the entire population. Further comprehensive studies that compare clinical characteristics of ACS at different stages in women (reproductive age, menopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause) should be conducted for a complete understanding of ACS in women.


  Conclusions Top


In the Indian scenario, ACS has been an uncommon entity in women, and its treatment is of great challenge for a patient as well as treating physician. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia were the most common risk factors for ACS in our study population. Dyspnea (26.82%) was the most common symptoms associated with ACS in female patients. NSTEMI, STEMI, and unstable angina were the most common clinical presentations in our study population. On angiographic findings, SVD was the most involved vessel, followed by DVD and TVD. LAD involvement was seen in utmost cases. A better understanding of clinical features of ACS may definitely be beneficial for timely diagnosis and precise treatment.

Ethical clearance

The study protocol was approved on April 5, 2017, by the institutional ethics committee with registration number: 185/2017/ACME.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Catherine K, Debi S, Janic P, James L, Anand SS. Referrals in acute coronary events for cardiac catheterization: The RACE CAR Trial. Can J Cardiol 2010;8:e290-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Thom T, Haase N, Rosamond W, Howard VJ, Rumsfeld J, Manolio T, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2006 update: A report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Circulation 2006;113:e85-151.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Gupta RV. Coronary Heart Disease Epidemiology in India: The Past, Present and Future. New Delhi, India: Jaypee; 2001. p. 6-28.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Udell JA, Fonarow GC, Maddox TM, Cannon CP, Frank Peacock W, Laskey WK, et al. Sustained sex-based treatment differences in acute coronary syndrome care: Insights from the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines Coronary Artery Disease Registry. Clin Cardiol 2018;41:758-68.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Bavishi C, Bangalore S, Patel D, Chatterjee S, Trivedi V, Tamis-Holland JE. Short and long-term mortality in women and men undergoing primary angioplasty: A comprehensive meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol 2015;198:123-30.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Mehilli J, Presbitero P. Coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome in women. Heart 2020;106:487-92.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ayanian JZ, Epstein AM. Differences in the use of procedures between women and men hospitalized for coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 1991;325:221-5.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Goodman SG, Huang W, Yan AT, Budaj A, Kennelly BM, Gore JM, et al. The expanded Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events: Baseline characteristics, management practices, and hospital outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes. Am Heart J 2009;158:193-201.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Radovanovic D, Erne P, Urban P, Bertel O, Rickli H, Gaspoz JM, et al. Gender differences in management and outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes: Results on 20,290 patients from the AMIS Plus Registry. Heart 2007;93:1369-75.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, Casey DE, Ganiats TG, Holmes DR, et al. AHA/ACC Guideline for the management of patients with non–ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014;64:e139-228.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Ezhumalai B, Jayaraman B. Angiographic prevalence and pattern of coronary artery disease in women. Indian Heart J 2014;66:422-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Gupta R, Joshi P, Mohan V, Reddy KS, Yusuf S. Epidemiology and causation of coronary heart disease and stroke in India. Heart 2008;94:16-26.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ôunpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): Case-control study. Lancet 2004;364:937-52.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Erne P, Radovanovic D, Seifert B, Bertel O, Urban P. Outcome of patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome on palliative treatment: insights from the nationwide AMIS Plus Registry 1997-2014. BMJ Open 2015;5:2014-006218.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Alfredsson J, Stenestrand U, Wallentin L, Swahn E. Gender differences in management and outcome in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Heart 2007;93:1357-62.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Mohanan PP, Mathew R, Harikrishnan S, Krishnan MN, Zachariah G, Joseph J, et al. Presentation, management, and outcomes of 25 748 acute coronary syndrome admissions in Kerala, India: results from the Kerala ACS Registry. Eur Heart J 2013;34:121-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Xavier D, Pais P, Devereaux PJ, Xie C, Prabhakaran D, Reddy KS, et al. CREATE registry investigators. Treatment and outcomes of acute coronary syndromes in India (CREATE): A prospective analysis of registry data. Lancet 2008;26;371:1435-42.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Wang Y, Chen HJ, Shaikh S, Mathur P. Is obesity becoming a public health problem in India? Examine the shift from under- to overnutrition problems over time. Obes Rev 2009;10:456-74.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Stone NJ, Robinson JG, Lichtenstein AH, Bairey Merz CN, Blum CB, Eckel RH, et al. ACC/AHA guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol to reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2014;63:2889-934.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Johnson CL, Rifkind BM, Sempos CT, Carroll MD, Bachorik PS, Briefel RR, et al. Declining serum total cholesterol levels among US adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. JAMA 1993;269:3002-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Stevenson JC, Crook D, Godsland IF. Influence of age and menopause on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy women. Atherosclerosis 1993;98:83-90.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Kelsey MM., Braffett BH, Geffner ME, Levitsky LL, Caprio S, McKay SV, et al. Menstrual Dysfunction in Girls From the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) Study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018;103: 2309-18.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Rivellese AA, Riccardi G, Vaccaro O. Cardiovascular risk in women with diabetes. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis 2010;20:474-80.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Heianza, Y, Arase Y, Kodama S, Hsieh SD, Tsuji H, Saito K, et al. Effect of Postmenopausal Status and Age at Menopause on Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes in Japanese Individuals: Toranomon Hospital Health Management Center Study 17 (TOPICS 17). Diabetes Care 2013;36:4007-14.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Rakugi H, Yu H, Kamitani A, Nakamura Y, Ohishi M, Kamide K, et al. Links between hypertension and myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 1996;132:213-21.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Kumar N, Sharma S, Mohan B, Beri A, Aslam N, Sood N, et al. Clinical & Angiographic profile of patients presenting with first Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Tertiary care centre in Northern India. Indian Heart J 2008;60:210-4.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Agabiti-Rosei E, Muiesan ML. Left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure in women. J Hypertens Suppl 2002;20:S34-8.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Tewari S, Kumar S, Kapoor A, Singh U, Agarwal A, Bharti B, et al. Premature coronary artery disease in North India: An angiography study of 1971 patients. Indian Heart J 2004;57:311-8.  Back to cited text no. 28
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

Top
 
  Search
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
Conclusions
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed366    
    Printed6    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded46    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal