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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 54-58

Pulp stones as risk predictors for coronary artery disease: An intriguing, prevalence study

1 Department of Dentistry, Government Doon Medical College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India
2 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Institute of Dental Sciences, SOA University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
3 Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, MNR Dental College and Hospital, Sangareddy, Telangana, India
4 Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge and Implantology, Institute of Dental Sciences, SOA University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
5 Department of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, University of Ha'il, Ha'il, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
6 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saraswati-Dhanwantari Dental College and Hospital and Post-Graduate Research Institute, Parbhani, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Pratyaksha S Panwar
Department of Dentistry, Government Doon Medical College, Dehradun, Uttarakhand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/rcm.rcm_5_19

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Context and Aim: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has been recorded as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies indicate that participants with CAD show higher degree of pulp calcifications. Localized pulp calcifications are microscopically apparent in more than half of the teeth in young adolescents. However, pulp stones extending to the entire dentition are infrequent and need further evaluation to predict the risk of other probabilities of associated diseases. The present study was planned to estimate the prevalence of pulp stones in participants diagnosed with or undergoing treatment for CAD. Materials and Methods: The present study consisted of 300 participants within an age range of 20–55 years who were divided into the study group consisting of 150 participants, including 108 males and 42 females and 150 age- and sex-matched controls. Pulp stones were imaged using bitewing radiographs using the paralleling technique under standard conditions. The radiographs were interpreted separately by two experienced radiologists. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS statistics version 20 Core system software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), whereas statistical tests used were unpaired t-test and Z-test. The Chi-square test was used to check the prevalence of pulp stones in CAD participants in addition to their arch-wise and region-wise distribution while value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: CAD participants exhibited the 100% prevalence of pulp stones while posterior teeth were predominantly affected (P < 0.05). Furthermore, pulp stones were significantly higher in the maxilla than in the mandible in both the groups (P < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in gender predilection in the study group, although the control group showed a definite preponderance for the males for the development of pulp stones (P < 0.05). Conclusion: CAD participants have a high chance of being affected with pulp stones. Higher prevalence of this entity in multiple teeth may warrant such an individual, in the presence of other compounding risk factors, as a candidate for CAD to be ruled out.

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