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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 14-18

Pericardial effusion and outcome in children at a Tertiary Hospital in North-Western Nigeria: A 2-year retrospective review

1 Paediatric Cardiology Division, The Limi Children's Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Igoche David Peter
Paediatric Cardiology Division, The Limi Children's Hospital, Abuja
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/rcm.rcm_31_18

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Background: Pericardial effusion may culminate in cardiac tamponade which could be fatal. This study aims to describe the prevalence of cardiac tamponade, with the etiology, and outcome of childhood pericardial effusion at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Hospital records of children with pericardial effusion were retrospectively analyzed from June 2016 to May 2018. Data were described via percentages, tables, and bar and pie charts. Results: Of the 5876 pediatric admissions during the study duration, 10 (0.2%) children presented with cardiac tamponade (9 boys and 1 girl) and had emergency echocardiography-guided percutaneous pericardiocentesis; 5 (50%) of them had purulent, 4 (40%) had serous, and 1 (10%) had hemorrhagic pericardial effusion. Seventeen children, aged 8 months to 13 years with a male: female ratio of 2.4:1, had pericardial effusion during the study period. Pericardial effusion of infectious origin (58.8%) was the most common followed by uremic (17.4%), rheumatic (11.8%), and trauma and idiopathic (5.9%). Tuberculosis (TB) was the most implicated cause of infectious pericardial effusion (70%), and also the most common cause of cardiac tamponade (50%). Mortality was recorded in two children (11.8%) with end-stage renal disease and decompensated rheumatic heart disease, both complicated by pericardial effusion. None of them were in tamponade and hence did not have pericardiocentesis. Emergency echocardiography-guided percutaneous pericardiocentesis was safe and successful in all those who had this procedure. Conclusion: Cardiac tamponade is common in children with pericardial effusion in Kano. TB is the leading cause of childhood pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. Mortality was reported in two children, with pericardial effusion of uremic and rheumatic etiology each.

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